I teach graduate and undergraduate courses including International Human Rights Law, Law and Human Rights, International Law, Comparative Law, Public Law, Violence and Institutions, Concept of Justice, Global Democracy and Social Justice, Global Perspectives on Democracy, Development Politics, International Relations, Comparative Politics, U.S. Government, and U.S. Constitution.
In recognition of my innovative teaching, I received an award for "outstanding teaching" from American University. I received a letter of commendation from the provost and was nominated for the University Teaching Excellence Award at George Mason University. I was twice awarded a fellowship and grant for teaching innovation from the College of William & Mary University Teaching and Learning Project.
126 of my students have published their coursework as part of the engaged pedagogy in my classroom, publishing in Harvard Law School's Harvard Human Rights Journal Online, University of Oxford Faculty of Law's Oxford Human Rights Hub, Oxford University Politics Blog, E-International Relations, Intersect: The Stanford Journal of Science, Technology, and Society (indexed in Google Scholar), Devex's Inside Development, UNICEF's Voices of Youth, and The Washington Times, among others.
4 human rights reports have been authored by my students as assignments in my courses that make real-world interventions. The reports have been cited by the UN Human Rights Council and Australian Human Rights Commission.
• Report on democratic control of AI cited 5 times by the Australian Human Rights Commission.
• Report on AI and privacy cited 3 times in UN Human Rights Council report (A/HRC/46/37).
• Report on violence against women submitted to UN special rapporteur on violence against women.
• Report on right to housing submitted to UN special rapporteurs on housing and extreme poverty.
Student publications from my courses are listed below as useful examples for current students.
I am particularly interested in advising students on conducting research and publishing in the areas of international law, human rights, legal theory, democracy and democratic theory, international relations, monetary theory, and international political economy, drawing on feminist, critical race, critical class, postcolonial, and intersectional approaches.
Below is a selection of work students did in my courses and got published.
CO-AUTHORED HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT
“The Human Right to Democratic Control of Artificial Intelligence: Report to the Australian Human Rights Commission on the 'Human Rights and Technology: Discussion Paper,'” American University Digital Research Archive, doi: 10.17606/8f4f-8k38 (April 2020).
Student-led, co-authored human rights report submitted to the Australian Human Rights Commission in response to their call for submissions regarding the Commission's "Human Rights and Technology: Discussion Paper" (December 2019).
CITED 5 TIMES in the Australian Human Rights Commission's Human Rights and Technology Final Report (2021) (https://tech.humanrights.gov.au/downloads).
Rapid advances in artificial intelligence (AI) will accelerate the concentration of authoritarian power and increase systemic inequality and discrimination unless there is democratic control of AI. Democratic control of AI requires control by citizens' assemblies, decision-making bodies comprised of randomly-selected individuals who hear from experts and have the power to determine AI law and policies. Citizens' assemblies have a proven record of success in securing democratic control of public policy-making in Ireland, Iceland, Canada, Australia, and elsewhere.
"Diabetes, Insulin Treatment, and International Human Rights Law"
Intersect: The Stanford Journal of Science, Technology, and Society, Vol. 11, No. 2 (2018)
The journal publishes quarterly and is indexed in Google Scholar.
The availability of medications for communities across the globe faces great disparity. Accessibility varies from person to person, and for some, can mean life or death. In a world of international human rights regulations, which seek to protect the people from preventable injustice and harm, the state of the global health system is simply unacceptable. This paper will seek to address the accessibility of medications, particularly of insulin, in various parts of the world. It will weigh the importance of this accessibility in upholding the right to the highest attainable standard of health, and the right to the benefits of scientific progress, as outlined in various parts of the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights’ (OHCHR) human rights bodies and documents. Further, it will analyze the theories of international trade law in proving the need for greater accessibility. Various nations and case studies will be discussed and scrutinized in order to develop a holistic depiction of the global health system and its shortcomings. Research will also be used to explain the underlying reasons for disparities across the globe. Finally, realistic solutions that would alleviate the damages of inaccessibility to insulin treatments will be deliberated and expanded upon for further application.
"The Real War On Drugs: The United States’ Perpetration of Human Rights Violations by Denying PrEP Drugs to At-Risk Individuals"
Harvard Human Rights Journal Online, Harvard Law School, July 30, 2020
While the HIV/AIDS crisis is currently out of the news cycle, there are still approximately 38,000 new cases and 15,000 deaths in the United States each year. The only known way to prevent the spread of HIV is pre-exposure prophylaxis (“PrEP”), a daily preventative pill taken by individuals who are at risk of contracting HIV. Currently, Truvada is one of two FDA-approved PrEP drugs and the only heavily researched drug preventing the transmission of HIV in the United States. The drug is sold to patients for up to $1,500 per month, but the cost of making PrEP for one month is only about $6. Additionally, only about 10% of the 1.14 million individuals who need PrEP currently take Truvada. Due to their strict patents, Gilead Science holds a monopoly on the PrEP market, forcing at-risk individuals to choose between paying absurd prices for medicine or forgoing the drug entirely. The United States’ failure to disband Gilead’s monopoly over PrEP contributes to the loss of thousands of American lives to HIV and AIDS each year.
"Human Rights are Refugee Rights:
The Protection of Economic Rights for Refugees in the United States"
Harvard Human Rights Journal Online, Harvard Law School, April 20, 2020
All refugees should receive the same economic rights, including the right to employment, fair wages, and economic stability.... Violations of these legal standards often include the state’s failure to provide favorable employment opportunities, fair economic wages, and a sufficient amount of resettlement programs and support systems.
"How the Prison System is Failing Women and Why it is a Human Rights Issue"
Oxford Human Rights Hub Blog, University of Oxford, Faculty of Law, March 23, 2021
While women make up the minority in global prison populations, they are the fastest growing prison population. With this, comes a need to evaluate human rights violations within justice systems and detention centers. Many women are imprisoned due to the gender discrimination prevalent in the society. This discrimination often appears in the form of (patriarchal) formal and informal justice systems, leading to incarceration. In 2001, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) established that discrimination against women includes inequitable treatment in the courts. Also, the United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders (Bangkok Rules), adopted in 2010, created protections for women prisoners globally. Yet, officials around the world ignore these and other documents meant to establish women’s rights in justice systems.
"Protecting Indigenous Communities in Cases of Climate-forced Migration"
Oxford Human Rights Hub Blog, University of Oxford, Faculty of Law, May 22, 2020
On Indigenous People’s Day in 2018, the United Nations pushed for the protection of indigenous populations’ human rights in cases of social, political, economic, and climate-forced migration. It fell short of acknowledging that victims of climate-related forced migration receive limited protections under international law as compared to social, economic, and political migrants. Previous constructions of climate-related migration rely on the assumption of other contributing factors. Indigenous communities experiencing climate migration face decreased representation, limited opportunities for economic participation and decreased protection of property. This blog highlights the need for the enactment of proactive measures necessary to preserve indigenous communities experiencing climate-forced migration.
EMILIE JOE BRANDT
"How the Externalisation of EU Migration Governance Places Refugees at Risk: An Analysis of EU-Libya Migration Cooperation," Oxford Human Rights Hub Blog, University of Oxford, Faculty of Law, May 11, 2022
It is both dangerous and unlawful for the EU to evade its human rights responsibilities by continuing to externalise its migration governance. ... The Libyan case illustrates the EU’s failure to recognise its humanitarian responsibility: to protect the right to asylum and to honor concepts of global solidarity and burden-sharing. Going forward, the EU must openly acknowledge its human rights failures caused by externalising migration governance. In Libya, the EU must take responsibility for refugee protection and ensure concrete human rights improvements in the region, especially by strengthening asylum protection along the Central Mediterranean migration route.
"The 2022 World Cup: From Soccer to Human Rights Violations & Geopolitics," Oxford Human Rights Hub Blog, University of Oxford, Faculty of Law, January 3, 2023
It is not news that Qatar, a country with serious human rights violations, was chosen to host this year’s World Cup. Migrant workers have been the most affected by the nation’s kafala system, with abuses, exploitation, injuries, and death, while the most vulnerable – including women and LGBTQ+ people – are subjected to verbal, physical, and sexual abuse. As the tournament comes to an end, the focus on the country’s workers must remain, as they will be essential to the dismantling of structures, such as temporary stadiums. Qatar is not solely the one to blame for a World Cup built on racial injustice. FIFA and its parameters for choosing a host country are also at fault: for years, regimes have used the World Cup to hide their human rights abuses, and they have been overtly ignored by the International Federation.
"A Tale of False Promises: Florida Governor DeSantis’ Refugee Crisis," Refugee Law Initiative, School of Advanced Study, University of London, November 11, 2022
The United States is facing a migrant and refugee crisis. The US government attempts to navigate this issue and find practical solutions to aid these individuals. Keeping control of the influx of migrants entering the country through the US/Mexico border has been demanding. However, the political divide in the country and strong opinions have resulted in certain governors attempting to take the situation into their own hands. In September 2022, Florida Governor Ron DeSantis transported around 50 migrants located in San Antonio, Texas to Martha’s Vineyard (an island south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts). DeSantis is now facing a criminal investigation and an investigation from the Federal Treasury Department regarding the misuse of coronavirus relief funds to transport the migrants. In this blog post I lay out the legal issues and the human rights violations involved in this context.
"Disarming the Police"
International Affairs Forum, September 5, 2020
Police officers should no longer be permitted to carry guns on duty because they present an actual and perceived danger to citizens. The actual danger is in their capacity to arbitrarily kill or harm citizens, and to be justified by the state to do so. The perceived danger occurs when the population, specifically minority communities, have an immense and justified fear of the police as a result of the actual danger that impacts their emotional health and everyday lives. This danger undermines the role that police should play in an ideal democratic society, as well as violates citizen’s rights to life, proper mental health, education, work, etc.
"How Coronavirus Exposes Unequal Access to Education in America"
April 30, 2020
The pandemic must serve as a wake-up call for legislators and school board members; far too many students are being disadvantaged by a lack of Internet access. This issue will not only affect students during their time in primary and secondary education but will continue to follow them into higher education. Their peers, many of whom have been privileged with high-speed access and their own laptops, have received a different education. As suggested by the U.N. report on the Right to Internet Access, access to Internet is an educational issue, a feminist issue, an economic issue, and a racial issue.
"Rising Chinese Influence on International Organizations"
The Washington Times, June 10, 2020
Dozens of tanks, all assembled into a column before the unidentified man, threatened to crush him under their mechanical feet if he did not move out of the way. In defiance, whenever the column attempted to move around him, he would shift his position to prevent them from moving forward. The Tiananmen Square Massacre of 1989 gained notoriety around the world for the brutality displayed by the government of the People’s Republic of China. The previously mentioned courageous individual, otherwise known as Tank Man, was one of the many involved in those protests. The picture taken of him in his heroic act would gain recognition worldwide. He stood up to a tyrannical Communist government in the hopes that a free and democratic China would take its place. He recognized the threat that the Communist Party of China posed, not just in his own country, but around the world as well.
"Adequate, Effective, and Prompt: Analyzing the Right to Reparations in Transitional Justice,"
Georgetown University Undergraduate Law Review, Vol. VI, Issue 1 (Spring 2020), pp. 1–13
The right to reparations is clearly defined in international law as a human right, though no framework and little precedent exists to guide reparations programs and ensure their implementation. This paper argues that the right to reparations is a customary norm of international law and should be fulfilled with the same urgency and adequacy of other customary norms. I compile a formula for reparations implementation based on three case studies of past reparations programs. This formula consists of lost income, lost assets, and costs of medical, legal, and psychological services. Finally, I develop a timeframe for reparations implementation by region based on household wealth and yearly expenditure. Based on these findings, I make several recommendations as to how governments should proceed when establishing reparations programs that comply with international law and the basic principles of human rights.
"It is Time for Reparations"
International Affairs Forum, January 16, 2020
As described in the United Nations General Assembly resolution, Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law, reparations should be “adequate, effective and prompt reparation for harm suffered.” ... Requests for reparations should be handled with haste and all eligible populations should be notified and informed of their rights. Post-transition agencies should be created to specifically handle these requests.
"Why More Needs to be Done to Defend Internet Access"
The Oxford University Politics Blog, Oxford University Department of Politics and International Relations, January 13, 2020
Internet access has been a controversial issue; in the U.S., many people believe in the notion that "internet access is a privilege." ... Allowing governments to restrict internet access infringes on several human rights. ... It is time that the international community adopts a more serious approach to defending internet access and discourages both governments and companies from restricting citizens’ access to the internet.
SHAWKY NABIL DARWISH
"Yes, It's Time for Reparations"
International Affairs Forum, May 2020
Lorde is quite right. The fact of the matter is that in our capitalist system, those without resources simply die off. And given the fact that white Americans have been given (and are still receiving) their ~400 year head-start on Black Americans, the system we have is a slow but steady insurance policy against equality. Is this starting to make sense?
And when we all finally agree that reparations probably should finally be repaid to Black Americans, someone inevitably shoots up in the back of the room with a grin and a “How are we ever going to afford this?” Seriously? To start, reparations has been used by the United States government before, in the case of those affected by Japanese Internment, each individual received direct compensation of $20,000, or $42,000 adjusted for inflation. The use of direct reparations for Japanese-Americans, and the refusal of reparations for African-Americans, highlights the American tradition of assuming Black people don’t know how to spend their own money. And second, let’s not pretend that Congress didn’t just pull $2 trillion dollars out of its marble ass for COVID-19. We have the money, so let’s do what’s right.
"Why Feminists Deserve Paternity Leave"
Center for Feminist Foreign Policy Online Journal, August 27, 2019
While there are many obstacles to address for women in the workplace, paid maternal leave must first be established as a basic human right globally.... Additionally, mandating the provision of paternity leave encourages men to take an active role in caregiving, institutionally reinforced by the expectation that he will take the paid time off.
"The Importance of Implementing a Feminist Foreign Policy"
International Affairs Forum, May 21, 2020
Sweden was the world's first country to implement a feminist foreign policy in October 2014, which has had successful outcomes. Taking this measure meant that a gender viewpoint would regularly be implemented into their foreign policy agenda. The implementation of this policy has had positive results, ranging from having an established network of women mediators active around the world, campaigning for girls and women's rights, and being able to advocate issues concerning women, peace, and security to the UN Security Council. Many countries have viewed the success of this foreign policy, and as of right now, Canada and Mexico have followed Sweden's footsteps in incorporating this policy. This is a path that many countries should also take, given the research that has shown how the implementation of a feminist foreign policy is generally beneficial to society.
Women's Rights: "The Untapped Resource in the MENA Region"
International Affairs Forum, June 12, 2020
Women in the Middle East and North Africa are viewed through the eyes of a patriarchal system that has been in place for centuries. As we approach the first quarter of the 21st century, women in the region still live in the shadow of a patriarchal society that continues to dominate despite the efforts and fight for equality. ... [A] way to address the issue is by introducing a gender quota in parliaments, for example. A few countries – such as Morocco – have introduced a gender quota; “81 of 395 (21%) seats in the Majliss-annouwab / House of Representatives are held by women” (Gender Quotas Database). This is an example for other countries, and it could work if the quota’s percentage is large enough so that a difference can be made.
"#YoungAndPowerful: The Fundamental Need for Youth Representation in International Relations"
Plan International Blog, April 22, 2019
Youth need the power and opportunity to input their views in the decision-making process, and to work with world leaders to shape their future. This problem is difficult to change because an ageist culture is one that has been engrained in society forever. Fortunately, there are ways to include youth in the equation.
"Economic Sanctions: An Illegal Use of Force from the United States, and an Attack on the Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of Iranian Women"
The Undergraduate Law Review at New York University, Vol. II, Issue 2 (Spring 2019)
Throughout history, sanctions have become an increasingly popular tool in attempting to
change state behavior without having to go to war. President Woodrow Wilson once described
economic sanctions as a “peaceful, silent, deadly remedy.” Only a century later, the United States
has continued to impose sanctions despite knowing their deadly results. In this paper, I argue that
given international obligations and norms, the U.S.’s use of economic sanctions, specifically those
on Iran, violates basic human rights principles. Moreover, the U.S. has consistently ignored calls
for reform within their use of sanctions, which would halt the violation of human rights imposed
by such sanctions. Research has shown that economic sanctions have harmful, even disastrous
effects on humanitarian relief and quality of life for populations in targeted countries. However,
research has also often failed to recognize that sanctions do not affect populations equally:
sanctions result in gendered outcomes, with women suffering the most. This is not to say that men
do not also experience hardship under sanctions, but rather, that there are often unintended
gendered effects that especially hurt women. This paper will also examine the gendered effects of
economic sanctions on the economic, social, and cultural rights of Iranian women by referencing
documents such as the UDHR, ICESCR, ICCPR, CEDAW, and several General Comments and
Special Rapporteur reports. The United States has historically been the largest abuser of economic
sanctions abroad; the current administration has not differed immensely in the long-standing
economic sanction policies on Iran.
"The Human Rights Violation of Sanction: U.S. Unilateral Sanctions and Iran’s Government"
Journal of International Relations, March 10, 2020
Sigma Iota Rho Honor Society for International Studies
Unilateral sanctions, in particular, deter nearly all human rights, including the right to self-determination, the right to health, the right to education, the right to an adequate standard of living, and the right to development. Countries should no longer utilize unilateral sanctions as an instrument for influence.
"Our Day Will Come: The Inevitability of Irish Unification as Brexit Approaches"
The Oxford University Politics Blog, Oxford University Department of Politics and International Relations, January 7, 2019
Internal processes have led to a unified island increasingly becoming a greater possibility. The external shock of Brexit has accelerated these trends and made reunification near inevitable.
"A New Animal Rights Treaty Regime is Needed that Mirrors Human Rights Treaties: Animals aren’t Commodities, They Have Inherent Rights"
Animal Blawg: Blog of Animal Law, September 16, 2018
Maintained by Professor David N. Cassuto, Pace University School of Law
A fundamental shift is needed in global law protecting animals. Existing systems protect animals mainly as commodities for human benefit and trade. There is a need to enshrine in international law the inherent rights of animals and have protection regimes that mirror those of human rights treaties.
"Netflix's Tiger King Does More Harm Than Good"
Animal People Forum, May 6, 2020
Tiger King focused on the wrong things, celebrating those who perpetuate a system of cruelty and demonizing those who have dedicated their lives to dismantling it. It also brushed over the Big Cat Public Safety Act, which would amend the Captive Wildlife Safety Act to prohibit the possession of big cats by individuals who are not licensed by the US Department of Agriculture. Carole Baskin has been working for years to get this act passed in Congress, and its necessity should be clear. The private ownership of big cats needs to end if these animals are going to be treated humanely. Though Tiger King mentioned the law and has generated support in favor of it, many people are still in the dark about the true cruelty that these animals experience. Director Eric Goode said that the documentary was supposed to be the “Blackfish” of the big cat world, but instead it became the “Keeping up with the Kardashians.” The documentary highlighted the wrong aspects of this situation, and in doing so has harmed conservation efforts and given fame to those who are entirely undeserving.
"Mass Incarceration and the Consequences of Disparate Drug Sentencing"
International Affairs Forum, May 8, 2020
The United States constitutes less than five percent of the total world population, however it comprises nearly 25% of the entire world’s prison population. Disparities in drug sentencing and the enactment of racist, unjustifiable mandatory minimum sentences have exploded the correctional systems population by 700% to 2.3 million individuals, from the beginning of the 1970’s.
"Navigating Free Speech and Social Order:
An International Case Study on Protecting the Internet"
Georgetown University Undergraduate Law Review, Vol. V, Issue 1 (Summer 2019), pp. 52–59
An examination of personal data protections in the digital age using the European Union, China, and the United States as case studies to support the creation of a binding international agreement for data regulation.
In an increasingly digital world, free speech and privacy laws in any given country have a growing impact on the lives of people across the globe, especially with regard to personal data protections. Unfortunately, there has yet to be any global and effective legally binding agreements to set a base level of protection for digital information on individuals. On one side of the debate, some countries argue that some level of censorship is necessary to prevent cybeterrorism and maintain social order. On the other, other countries and human rights organizations warn that censorship violates the human rights to freedom of speech, expression and privacy, making it easier for governments to quiet dissidents and spread false information. After analyzing the legal position of data protection, I recommend the ratification of legal protections for personal data, even if it is not as extensive as one could hope. In order to be effective, any treaty would have to create a supervising body and court for resolving disputes and offering advisory opinions. Hopefully, private corporations will take the lead, valuing employee and local input rather than profits alone.
"Novyi Mir, Novaya Prava: The CIS Space in Transition"
The Monitor: Journal of International Studies, Vol. 23, Issue 2 (Spring 2018)
This paper argues that the post-Soviet states already had significant experience with playing by—and manipulating—the “rules of the game” of the Western international legal system during the Soviet era. As a result, the full integration of the post-Soviet space into the Western legal order involved a significant amount of calculation by the states involved to obtain economic benefits and enhance their political legitimacy. But at the same time, it is undeniable that the post-Soviet states were influenced by newly adopted standards, systems, and institutions in ways that ran counter to expected outcomes or their interests. Rather than being a one-sided, imperialistic enforcement of Western norms on the former Soviet Union or a manipulation of weak Western institutions by newly independent states, the development of international law in the region was instead a complex interplay between the agendas of regional and extra regional actors as well as international bodies.
KEVIN BLOODWORTH II
"Bleeding them Dry: America's Vampiric Relationship with Puerto Rico"
International Affairs Forum, December 30, 2019
America is heralded as a hope and beacon of democracy yet refuses to enfranchise over 4 million U.S. citizens in Puerto Rico. This lack of representation has cost Puerto Rico dearly, as America’s consistent violations of Puerto Rican’s human right to self-determination is the major factor contributing to Puerto Rico’s current economic crisis.
WILLIAM DU TERTRE
"Error 420: Problems Caused by State and Federal Legal Divergences"
Legal Reader, May 21, 2020
The battle to legalize cannabis hasn’t seen much progress despite gaining significant popularity among people all around the country in recent years. It is one of the few issues today which hasn’t been polarizing and has received legal support from now over two-thirds of the American population, according to studies from the Pew Research Center. Despite the efforts of now almost 20 states and districts decriminalizing or recreationalizing the drug, the question becomes what’s holding back pot smokers from smoking pot legally in today’s times?
International Affairs Forum, May 18, 2020
The Syrian people are the only group with a right to power over the direction of their government, and any attempt to remove or replace Assad without the consent of the Syrian people will create fractured peace at best. Although removal of the Assad regime by foreign actors may be quicker and easier in the short term, in the long term it will likely cause a dangerous power vacuum and deepen political unrest and conflict in Syria.
"Controlling Coronavirus and Egypt's Government"
International Affairs Forum, May 21, 2020
Initially, in the response to COVID-19, authorities administered strict punishments for those breaking laws that were established to prevent the widespread of coronavirus. While this was applauded by the public, concerns were raised when President Abdel Fatah al-Sissi gave himself and his government more power by amending the country’s emergency law.
As Sissi approved these amendments, the Egyptian government responded by defending him, saying that the measures are necessary in preventing the spread of COVID-19. However, many human rights activists argue that this increase in power is an easy passage for the government to abuse the rights and freedoms of the people.
"We Know Mississippi Can Improve Its Schools, If Only Our Leaders Would Get on Board"
Education Post, May 20, 2020
The state boasts one of the lowest per-pupil spending rankings in the nation. Until Mississippi leaders recognize the importance of education on both the lives of the students and the success of the state, students will continue to underperform, and the state will fall further behind the rest of the U.S., both economically and socially. ... Mississippians deserve an equal opportunity to achieve educational excellence—like every other American. It is time for Mississippi lawmakers to acknowledge the importance of a quality education. And it is time for Mississippi public schools to receive the resources they need for both the students and the state as a whole to be successful.
"Ending the Global Assault on Protest"
Diplomatic Courier, January 6, 2020
The right to protest is under assault in most of the world today, from the most democratic to authoritarian. Protests have become increasingly criminalized by governments and decried as criminal in the press. Those without permits to protests are labelled as “illegal” or violent, but what constitutes violent or illegal protests? ... Often, governments mislabel legitimate protests as “violent” in order to stifle civil rights and eventually even justify violence and brutality against protesters.
"A Nobel Peace Prize With No Peace: Is Ethiopia the Next Rwandan Genocide in the Making?"
International Affairs Forum, January 6, 2020
The future of Ethiopia is uncertain but one thing remains clear: the ethnic violence is worsening. The government needs to acknowledge this harsh truth and take dramatic action, such as moving from ethnic federalism, a system that divides based on ethnicity, to a proportional representative democracy. Unless Ethiopian leaders and the international community want another Rwanda on their hands, they can no longer stand by idly handing out peace prizes as violence among the ethnic groups escalates.
"Russian Government Cyber-Attacks in Ukraine in 2014 Constituted an Illegal Use of Force"
The Monitor: Journal of International Studies, Vol. 23, Issue 2 (Spring 2018)
In this paper, I argue that the Russian government illegally used force against Ukraine when it conducted cyber operations in Crimea to create a communication blackout, in conjunction with the pro-Russian militant occupation of the peninsula. First, I will examine the background of the incident and relevant international law. Second, I will discuss some of the current theories in international law regarding the use of force in cyberspace as well as some of the flaws in those approaches. Next, I will analyze three different case studies: the disruption of internet access for a North Korean agency by the United States, the Stuxnet worm that destroyed roughly 1,000 centrifuges in Iran, and the cyber operations during the Russian invasion of Georgia. After the case studies, I will present why the Russian cyber-attacks in Ukraine constituted a use of force. Penultimately, I will discuss the legality of that use of force based on the United Nations charter. The last section will draw conclusions and comment on unresolved issues regarding the use of force in cyberspace.
"Money Is of No Object: How the U.S. Government Mishandles Price Gouging in Key Industries"
International Affairs Forum, June 5, 2020
The United States needs to better allocate the federal budget to support those affected by price gouging in the pharmaceutical industry as opposed to standing idly by as its citizens are unable to access life saving medication. The defense industry serves as an example of how the United States seems to throw money at a situation to resolve it, yet only addresses those that fall directly into their own interests. The government would rather spend money on a half-inch metal pin that has become nearly 10,000% more expensive than for a struggling citizen’s insulin that’s become 300% more expensive.
"AI and the Erosion of Freedoms"
Diplomatic Courier, November 15, 2019
AI is implicated in halting and limiting civil resistance. The ability to hold protests and to freely speak out against injustice is one of the most implicit freedoms that define liberal democracies. The critical question is: how much of our democratic freedoms are we willing to give up to advance technology?
"Losing Citizenship: A Comparative Study on the Legal Issues of Returning ISIS Affiliates,"
Georgetown University Undergraduate Law Review, Vol. VI, Issue 1 (Spring 2020), pp. 23–30
As coalition forces have taken back the territory occupied by ISIS militants, former ISIS participants and affiliates have encountered a new problem. While several countries have decided to readmit them as citizens, other countries have stripped them of their citizenship. According to Article 15 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, no person may be denied their nationality. This paper analyzes the legality of those countries' measures and discusses ISIS affiliates' human rights. It summarizes the background of ISIS and examines citizenship as a fundamental human right for ISIS affiliates. This paper categorizes those countries into two groups according to whether they are willing to repatriate the participants or not. With regard to countries rejecting the citizenship of ISIS participants, this paper evaluates four such countries' laws and argues that ISIS affiliates have the right to keep their citizenship and face a fair trial. Countries should openly accept them because their crimes cannot supersede the human rights of ISIS affiliates.
"The Legality of the U.S. Drone Program Under International Law"
The Monitor: Journal of International Studies, Vol. 23, Issue 2 (Spring 2018)
Received the Frank Shatz Award for the best article of the year in The Monitor.
On September 30, 2011, a two-year manhunt for al-Qaeda recruiter, Yemeni imam, and United States citizen Anwar al-Awlaki culminated in a drone strike ordered by Barack Obama. Also killed in the attack was Samir Khan, another U.S. citizen who was not specifically targeted, but happened to be travelling with Awlaki at the time. The strike marked the first time that drones were used to execute American citizens without due process. It was met with widespread praise in the media, and hours after the strike, Obama joked to senior advisers in the Roosevelt room, “turns out I’m very good at killing people.” Since then, at least five other U.S. citizens, including Awlaki’s sixteen-year-old son, have been killed in drone strikes, all accidentally.
"Why Federalists Should Support the Legalization of Marijuana in America"
International Affairs Forum, April 18, 2020
The legalization of marijuana for medicinal and recreational purposes, at the federal level, would prove beneficial to both the state and its people. ... By adopting such a system and implementing on a nation-wide scale, Federalists can achieve their goal of centralizing legislative power within the federal government, resolve the abuses of the war on drugs, profit off the fastest growing industry in the US job market, and, in the process, enjoy the medicinal and recreational benefits of legal cannabis.
"How Abe Was Wrong about COVID-19 and the Olympics"
Journal of International Relations, May 17, 2020
Sigma Iota Rho Honor Society for International Studies
Japan could have remained as an exemplar state in containing COVID-19 infections if it had adopted and maintained the mass testing of COVID-19 simultaneously with its preparation for the Olympics. Conducting massive testing of COVID-19 would have been a risky political adventure for Abe, given the Japanese government’s relatively successful containment of COVID-19 infection at the early stage of pandemic. Nonetheless, as the “Recovery Olympics” would not have miraculously cured COVID-19, his ‘readiness for the Olympics’ should have been manifested differently than mere concealment of COVID-19. They could have coexisted if only Abe had taken enough time to contemplate the policies of sophisticated inter-sectoral cooperation and efficient utilization of domestic resources. Doing so would have proven Abe’s government transparency. He also could have secured and reinforced his leadership that would remain solid regardless of the postponement of the Olympics.
The world has seen South Korea successfully conducting its parliamentary election in April without aborting its mass testing of COVID-19, which resulted in zero cases of local transmission throughout the election period. Given the Japanese government budget, financial stability, medical infrastructure, and human resources available in Japan that surpass the South Korean one, there was no way that Japan could not have done the same.
"Self-Determination Between Two Giants: Geopolitical Obstacles to Democracy in Nepal"
International Affairs Forum, December 30, 2019
If large countries are able to determine the modes of economic development, political systems, or internal policies open to their neighbors, they are denying them full membership as independent states in the international system. This poses a clear violation of the principle of self-determination as has been established in international law. Acting together, countries such as Nepal must work to expand the application of the right of external self-determination to indirect neo-colonial forms of domination.
"The UK Voted to Leave the EU, and Now Scotland Must Vote to Leave the UK"
International Affairs Forum, May 13, 2020
On September 18 2014, Scotland held a referendum to decide whether or not it should leave the United Kingdom. The referendum failed, but only by a margin of 5.3 percent of the vote. Six years later, the United Kingdom has voted to leave the European Union. The reasons for this decision are numerous, but at the crux of them is the desire for the United Kingdom to have greater autonomy over its political and financial future. This desire for self determination is both admirable and forward-thinking. However, if this logic is to be followed to its natural conclusion, it also means Scottish independence from the UK.
"The Ethical Concerns of Drone and Automated Warfare"
Journal of International Relations, January 28, 2019
Sigma Iota Rho Honor Society for International Studies
The war of the future is still one in which noncombatants are regularly harmed. Ultimately, the United States government’s current path on this matter is one that places effective warfare above ethical concerns. The only solution—one which seems increasingly unlikely—is to deescalate the usage of autonomous weapons.
"The ‘Great Wall of Sand’ is Just the Beginning"
International Affairs Forum, December 28, 2018
Since as early as 1999, the People’s Republic of China has quietly been conducting one of the largest land reclamation projects in human history: the expansion of small islands and reefs in the South China Sea into sprawling military assets. Described by Admiral Harry Harris, US Ambassador to South Korea and former Commander of the United States Indo-Pacific Command, as a “Great Wall of Sand,” these islands pose a massive threat to stability in the region and around the world.
BASEM ALEJANDRO BADER RODRIGUEZ
"Ecuador's COVID-19 Chaos: Exploring People's Mentality"
International Affairs Forum, July 7, 2020
Mayors, officials, and ministries suggested stay-at-home orders but were never enforced. Almost two months and a half after first case was discovered in the country, Ecuador already registered more than 30,000 cases, with roughly 3,000 deaths that haven’t been yet well recorded.
The lack of enforcement and the poorly created “safe passages” that allowed anyone to drive around the city just as long they had a valid reason to do so, were the main reasons the virus spread so swiftly around Ecuador. The situation is so dreadful, that if Guayas (a coastal province) was considered a country, it would the second most infected in South America.
"The Price of Perpetual Production: Rectifying Human Rights Abuses in the Garment Industry"
The Monitor: Journal of International Studies, Vol. 25, Issue 2 (Spring 2020)
In the past decade, a number of high-profile tragedies within the global garment industry have sparked reform movements. In order to address the human rights abuses within this industry, the international community has developed systems of corporate responsibility, which entail voluntary codes of conduct created and implemented by corporations. This system has multiple flaws, as it puts reform in the hands of corporations without addressing exploitative practices or allowing for the legal enforcement of labor standards. In order to effectively address the human rights abuse within the global garment industry, direct governmental intervention has become necessary. In particular, the responsibility for intervention rests with the developed world, where the majority of garments are imported. Economically influential nations, particularly the United States, must implement import bans on garments produced using unethical labor practices. Such a ban is the most effective way to address and end the persistence of human rights abuse within the garment industry. This paper explores how current reform efforts have ultimately failed, and explains the rationale behind and the potential implementation of an import ban on unethically produced garments.
ANNE ALLEN HODGE
"Mississippi Blues Aren't Music, They're Trade Deficits"
International Affairs Forum, January 16, 2019
The economic losses due to the trade war are closing farms. These farms form the base of the state’s economies and lifestyles.... “These policies affect almost everyone I know. Agriculture is directly and indirectly one of the major employers in the US and is a huge part of the GOP for this country,” says Scott Cannada, Mississippi Farmer of the Year in 2011, when asked about the effects of the trade war policies on Mississippi’s farmers.
"The Imperial Eagle Rising"
International Affairs Forum, May 7, 2020
The modern, democratic Germany is at the heart of the continent’s economic, security, and humanitarian endeavors. It stands at the forefront of the European project, one that could be upended if Germany’s neighbors, many still carrying painful memories of the Second World War in their public consciences, feel threatened by nationalist German rhetoric. It matters because it is a larger movement than many Germans believe, with some elements even infiltrating police and military forces. It matters because they have radicalized, with members being implicated in xenophobic, anti-Semitic, and anti-government attacks on German soil.
"Breaking Bad: The Dangers of the Shipbreaking Industry"
International Affairs Forum, January 16, 2019
Shipbreaking is most commonly carried out in low-income countries where labor is cheap, there are relatively fewer safety regulations, workers are desperate for jobs, and limited environmental regulations exist compared to high-income countries such as Germany or England. One of the leading problems of shipbreaking is the environmental impacts associated with its process. Environmental damage from shipbreaking includes soil contamination, air and water pollution, and biodiversity loss. For example, by 2009, Bangladesh had lost twenty-one of its fish and crustacean species due to water contamination from the shipyards.